They are delicate and thread-like, each measuring 2.5 – 4 cm (1 -1.5 in). Iron is essential for red blood cell production. Cis- and trans-crocetin dimethyl esters have also been identified.7 Similar compounds have been isolated from other members of the Iridaceae family. var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0]; Manganese and copper are used by the body as co-factors for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Saffron has widespread traditional uses. Saffron is also cultivated in India, Turkey, China and Iran. A review of the volatile compounds of saffron has been published.8, By mechanisms not fully understood, saffron appears to be selectively cytotoxic, inhibiting proliferation and disease progression while healthy cells remain viable. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 1 Oct 2020), Cerner Multum™ (updated 1 Oct 2020), Wolters Kluwer™ (updated 30 Sep 2020) and others. Available for Android and iOS devices. The major carotenoid derivatives found in saffron are crocetin, picrocrocin, and safranal.2, 5, 7 The characteristic taste of the spice is attributed to the glycoside picrocrocin, while safranal is considered the main odiferous constituent, achieved through hydrolysis of picrocrocin.8. Saffron was used to scent the baths and public halls of Imperial Rome. The two are often used for the same purposes, and the less expensive American saffron is sometimes used as a substitute for or to adulterate true saffron. Its colouring properties have been as prized as its unique flavour. Good saffron should expand on contact with the water and a cup should be sufficient for 0.5 kg (1 lb) of rice. The active components have many therapeutic applications in many traditional medicines as antiseptic, antidepressant, anti-oxidant, digestive, anti-convulsant. Because of its expense, intense flavour, and strong dying properties, very little saffron is required for culinary purposes and the key is to distribute it evenly throughout the dish being prepared. Hypertension: 400 mg/day of saffron tablets for 7 days. What Are Good Spices and Herbs for Pizza? Saffron is a good source of minerals like copper, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, selenium, zinc and magnesium. The Chicken that Flew The History of Chicken Tenders and the Best Places to Get Them, The Top Aphrodisiac Spices To Improve Your Sex Life. Amounts higher than those used in food (eg, 5 g or more) have uterine stimulant and abortifacient effects. Information is limited. Saffron threads were also scattered across beds and mixed into hot tea as a way of curing sad feelings. A native of the Mediterranean, saffron is now imported primarily from Spain, where Moslems had introduced it in the 8th century along with rice and sugar. Francis Bacon wrote “it maketh the English sprightly”. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. Reviews of studies investigating the cardiovascular effects of saffron in animals have been published. Indian: kesa, kesram, khesa, zafran, Saffron is featured in Other sources suggest the name "Crocus" has origins in Greek mythology, according to which drops of blood from "Krokos," friend of Hermes, fall on the flower of a plant and create the characteristic stigmata of saffron flowers.2, 3, 4, 5 turmeric, echinacea, milk thistle, saw palmetto, creatine. Saffron appears in Moorish, Mediterranean and Asian cuisines. The name is from the Arabic word zafaran which means ‘yellow’. Its colour is a bright orange-red, and in high quality saffron this is uniform. Important: The information below refers to products available in the United States that contain saffron. Lists the various brand names available for medicines containing saffron. Saffron has long been the world's most costly spice by weight. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information -, Search the entire site for saffron. provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. Scientific Name(s): Crocus sativus L.Common Name(s): Saffron, Stigma Croci, Za'faran. Medically reviewed by }(document, "script", "aweber-wjs-d2559b6gz")); Copyright © The Epicentre - Website designed by, Tagine Of Chicken With Olives And Preserved Lemon, 7 Benefits of adding garlic to your meals every day. It grows to 15 cm (6 in) with long thin leaves. Death has been reported with use of saffron as an abortifacient.29 However, saffron is generally not associated with toxicity when ingested in amounts typically used in food.2, 3. js = d.createElement(s); = id; They are delicate and thread-like, each measuring 2.5 – 4 cm (1 -1.5 in). True saffron is native to Asia Minor (Anatolia) and southern Europe, with the majority of the world's saffron production based in Iran. Depression: 20 to 30 mg/day of saffron extract (stigma or petal) for mild to moderate depression. Store in a cool dry place, out of the light. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Most specialty food shops carry saffron, though if it has sat on the shelves for too long it may have lost flavor, so look for bright color. Coming from the dried stigmas of the saffron crocus, it takes 75,000 blossoms or 225,000 hand-picked stigmas to make a single pound which explains why it is the world’s most expensive spice. Reported adverse effects include nausea, vomiting, and headache. The Romans initially brought saffron to England, though it was lost to them in the Dark Ages. Flavour: A pungent bitter-honey taste Low grade saffron has even been treated with urine to give it colour, though it has most often been falsified with dried calendula or marigold. The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. Last updated on Jan 20, 2020. Saffron may also have a potential role in the treatment of cancer, in the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors, and in age-related macular degeneration. A fall-flowering ornamental crocus that does well in warm climates. Crocin is a mixture of glycosides: crocetin, a dicarboxylic terpene lipid, and alpha-crocin, a digentiobiose ester of crocetin. Other sources suggest the name "Crocus" has origins in Greek mythology, according to which drops of blood from "Krokos," friend of Hermes, fall on the flower of a plant and create the characteristic stigmata of saffron flowers.2, 3, 4, 5. In a study among healthy volunteers, saffron 400 mg daily for 7 days caused abnormal uterine bleeding in 2 women.29 A study in the 1960s demonstrated uterine stimulant and estrogenic effects in guinea pigs and mice.29 A high concentration of crocetin was teratogenic in frogs,76 and an aqueous extract of saffron delayed bone ossification in mouse fetuses.77, Avoid use in pregnancy. The word "saffron" is thought to originate from the Arabic "za'faran," meaning yellow. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps control heart rate and blood pressure. It has demonstrated efficacy as an alternative treatment for mild to moderate depression. There were no differences in adverse events between saffron and placebo groups in any of the studies; however, several involved small sample sizes (40 patients) and were conducted by the same group of researchers within a non-Western population.5, 40, 41 According to a meta-analysis of 5 published clinical trials examining the effects of saffron supplementation on symptoms of depression in patients with major depressive disorder, mean effect size was 1.62 for saffron over placebo (P<0.001).42 A more recent study of 60 patients compared 30 mg daily of a C. sativus extract containing crocin (1.65 to 1.75 mg) with citalopram 40 mg daily for 6 weeks; researchers noted comparable reductions in HAM-D scores throughout the study.43 A pilot study of 30 mg/day of the same C. sativus extract examined effects compared with fluoxetine 40 mg/day in women with postpartum depression; complete response (greater than 50% improvement in HAM-D scores) occurred in 13 patients in the extract group and 16 fluoxetine patients, with remission occurring in 6 and 7 patients, respectively.44, The significant cost of stigma-derived saffron capsules has prompted evaluation of the other plant parts; 2 trials evaluated petal-derived saffron with satisfactory results.34, 37 The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) clinical guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults (2016) recommend saffron as third-line monotherapy or adjunctive therapy for mild to moderate MDD (Level 2).45, Studies in rodents have evaluated the effects of aqueous saffron extracts on anxiety, as well as on models of Parkinson disease and dementia.5, 46, 47 A study in mice concluded that the stigma and petal of saffron demonstrated antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects.48 In a rat study, crocin 20 and 40 mg/kg demonstrated protection against tardive dyskinesia induced by haloperidol.49, Two small, short-term clinical trials evaluating saffron in Alzheimer disease have been published (N=40, 16 weeks' duration; and N=44, 22 weeks' duration). The stigmas of C. sativus contain the primary pigment crocin, as well as anthocyanin, alpha- and beta-carotene, and zeaxanthin pigments, and the vitamins riboflavin and thiamine. Saffron Rice Supreme These are important antioxidants that helps protect body from oxidant-induced stress, cancers, infections and acts as immune modulators. We have an online shop for hard-to-find and best-quality spices and blends. Kebsa spices (Gulf Baharat), Image by hodihu from Pixabay Pliny wrote that saffron was the most frequently falsified commodity, which has been true throughout history. Reported adverse effects included nausea, vomiting, and headache.2, 5, In a study of healthy volunteers, saffron 400 mg daily for 7 days caused statistically significant, but not clinically important, increases in serum creatine, sodium, and serum urea nitrogen.29 Similarly, crocin 20 mg in healthy volunteers reportedly produced minor hematological changes but no major adverse effects.81, Allergic reactions are uncommon; however, occupational allergies, including rhinoconjunctivitis, bronchial asthma, and cutaneous pruritus, have been reported.82, 83 Case reports of anaphylaxis also exist.3, 84 Cross-sensitivity has been described among saffron and Lolium, Salsola, and Olea spp.83, A few studies have evaluated the mutagenicity of saffron using the Ames Salmonella test; concentrations of up to 1,500 mcg/plate were found to be nontoxic and nonmutagenic.9, 85, The constituent crocin was not associated with any major toxicity in experimental models,11 except at higher dosages (crocin 100 mg/kg for 2 weeks), in which case hepatotoxicity was observed.81, In clinical trials evaluating dosages of saffron 400 mg, changes in some hematological and biochemical indices were observed.